I- INTRODUCTION :
The ovaries or female gonads 2 pairs and symmetric glands ensuring a dual function :
– endocrine : production d’sex hormones.
– exocrine : Production of eggs.
II- Anatomy Descriptive :
1- SITUATION :
Both right and left ovaries, are placed in the pelvic cavity in a dimple adnexal back of the broad ligament against the side wall of the pelvis, they are extra-peritoneal
2- GENERAL APPEARANCE AND DIMENSIONS :
Ovaries can be visualized by laparoscopy
– Before puberty l’ovary is lamellar at birth, it takes an oval shape after the 2nd year
– In the period of’genital activity l’ovary reaches its maximum dimensions :
– Length : 3,5cm width : 2cm thickness : 1cm weight : 8 a 10 g
– It is flattened almond and present
– 2 faces, lateral and medial separated by :
– 2 edges : free edge (posterior edge), and mésovarique edge (front edge) having the hilum
– 2 extremities : tubal (higher) and uterine (lower).
– Pearly white, it is crossed by scars corresponding to consecutive grooves was the rupture of ovarian follicles, more surface appear the projections of ovarian follicles in evolution
– After menopause l’involuntary ovary, it decreases in volume and its surface becomes smooth.
3- STRUCTURE :
– l’coating epithelium : a single layer of cubic cells which tears to let the eggs during spawning.
– le cortex : containing ovarian follicles.
– medullary : central.
4- FIXITY :
– The clean ligament of the’ovary (Situated utero ovaries) : unit l’lower end of the’ovary to the uterine horn.
– The suspensory ligament of the’ovary (round-lombo ovarien) : born in the lumbar region to the L2 level, is divided at its end into two beams :
– ovarian : directed to’upper end and the mesovaric edge of the’ovary-tubular : directed to’infundibulum (pavillon) the horn.
– The tubo-ovarian ligament : unit l’upper end of the’ovary to l’tube infundibulum.
– the mésovarium : meso of the’ovary, it attaches to the edge of the hilum’ovary along the limiting line of the peritoneum (line farre), and contains the vascular-nervous pedicles of l’ovary.
III- REPORTS :
1- laterally :
Responds to the pelvic wall, formed by l’coxal bone covered with the internal obturator muscle, this wall cheminent the following constituents neurovascular :
– the anterior branches of the’internal iliac artery
– the external iliac vessels
– the obturator nerve
– the ovarian vessels
2- averaged :
It is related :
– the mesosalpinx
– the clean ligament of the’ovary
3- EDGE MÉSOVARIQUE (prior) :
It responds to the broad ligament
4- MARGIN (posterior) :
Located 2cm in front of the’sacroiliac joint and responds to the’ureter through l’middle of the peritoneum.
Into the peritoneal cavity it meets the small bowel, le blind and l’appendix right, sigmoid colon has left.
5- TOP END :
Covered by the oviduct and mesosalpinx, it has to do with’small intestine.
6- LOWER END :
Located 1 a 2cm above the pelvic floor, it can be perceived by the pelvic touch(TP).
IV- VESSELS AND NERVES :
1- LES ARTERES :
– l’ovarian artery : is born from’aorta at L2 level, divides on reaching the’ovary in two ovarian and tubal branches
– l’uterine artery :ends at the uterine horn by giving 3rameaux :
* the branch of the uterine fundus
* the ovarian branch
* the tubal branch
– your total, these two arteries share in a variable way the arterial vascularization of l’ovary.
2- THE VEINS :
Constitute a venous plexus d’where the uterine and ovarian veins go.
3- THE lYMPHATIC :
Earn lymph nodes lateral-aortic, and external iliac.
4- NERVES :
Come from intermésentérique plexus(p exits ovarique) satellite’ovarian artery.
New records’anatomy -P.C.E.M- wading pool- by A.Leguerrier and O. Chevrant-Breton
Course of Dr Dous Said – Faculty of Constantine