I- INTRODUCTION :
The ovaries or female gonads 2 pairs and symmetric glands ensuring a dual function :
– endocrine : production & rsquo; sex hormones.
– exocrine : Production of eggs.
II- Anatomy Descriptive :
1- SITUATION :
Both right and left ovaries, are placed in the pelvic cavity in a dimple adnexal back of the broad ligament against the side wall of the pelvis, they are extra-peritoneal
2- GENERAL APPEARANCE AND DIMENSIONS :
Ovaries can be visualized by laparoscopy
– Before puberty the & rsquo; ovary is lamellar at birth, it takes an oval shape after the 2nd year
– A period of & rsquo; s genital activity & rsquo; ovary reached its maximum size :
– Length : 3,5cm width : 2cm thickness : 1cm weight : 8 a 10 g
– It is flattened almond and present
– 2 faces, lateral and medial separated by :
– 2 edges : free edge (posterior edge), and mésovarique edge (front edge) having the hilum
– 2 extremities : tubal (higher) and uterine (lower).
– Pearly white, it is crossed by scars corresponding to consecutive grooves was the rupture of ovarian follicles, more surface appear the projections of ovarian follicles in evolution
– After menopause the & rsquo; ovary involutes, it decreases in volume and its surface becomes smooth.
3- STRUCTURE :
– l & rsquo; epithelium : a single layer of cubic cells which tears to let the eggs during spawning.
– le cortex : containing ovarian follicles.
– medullary : central.
4- FIXITY :
– The proper ligament of the & rsquo; ovary (Situated utero ovaries) : unites & rsquo; lower end of the & rsquo; ovary uterine horn.
– The suspensory ligament of the & rsquo; ovary (round-lombo ovarien) : born in the lumbar region to the L2 level, is divided at its end into two beams :
– ovarian : directed to the & rsquo; upper end and the edge of the mésovarique & rsquo; -tubaire ovary : directed to the & rsquo; infundibulum (pavillon) the horn.
– The tubo-ovarian ligament : unites the & rsquo; upper end of the & rsquo; s ovary & rsquo; infundibulum of the fallopian tube.
– the mésovarium : meso s & rsquo; ovary, it attaches to the periphery of the hilum of & rsquo; ovary according to the limiting line of the peritoneum (line farre), et les contain pédicules vascular-qu of & rsquo; jajnik.
III- REPORTS :
1- laterally :
Responds to the pelvic wall, formed by the & rsquo; hip bone covered the internal obturator muscle, this wall cheminent the following constituents neurovascular :
– earlier branches of the & rsquo; internal iliac artery
– the external iliac vessels
– the obturator nerve
– l & rsquo; ureter
– the ovarian vessels
2- averaged :
It is related :
– the mesosalpinx
– the proper ligament of the & rsquo; ovary
– l & rsquo; uterus
3- EDGE MÉSOVARIQUE (prior) :
It responds to the broad ligament
4- MARGIN (posterior) :
Located 2cm in front of the & rsquo; sacroiliac joint and responds to the & rsquo; ureter by & rsquo; intermediate peritoneum.
Into the peritoneal cavity it meets the small bowel, le blind and l & rsquo; appendage à droite, sigmoid colon has left.
5- TOP END :
Covered by the oviduct and mesosalpinx, it is related to the & rsquo; small intestine.
6- LOWER END :
Located 1 a 2cm above the pelvic floor, it can be perceived by the pelvic touch(TP).
IV- VESSELS AND NERVES :
1- LES ARTERES :
– l & rsquo; ovarian artery : born of & rsquo; aorta L2 level, is divided by reaching the & rsquo; ovary into two branches and ovarian tubal
– l & rsquo; uterine artery :ends at the uterine horn by giving 3rameaux :
* the branch of the uterine fundus
* the ovarian branch
* the tubal branch
– your total, these arteries divide so variable arterial vascularization of the & rsquo; ovary.
2- THE VEINS :
Constitute a venous plexus & rsquo; whence the uterine and ovarian veins.
3- THE lYMPHATIC :
Earn lymph nodes lateral-aortic, and external iliac.
4- NERVES :
Come from intermésentérique plexus(p exits ovarique) Satellite s & rsquo; ovarian artery.
New cases of & rsquo; anatomy -P.C.E.M- wading pool- by A.Leguerrier and O. Chevrant-Breton
Course of Dr Dous Said – Faculty of Constantine