I- introduction :
The testes are producing sperm male gonads, but also endocrine secretion glands (sex hormones : testosterone). At number two, they are located in the scrotum at the bottom of which they are secured by ligaments scrotal. The left testicle descends generally lower than the right testicle. We recall that the testicles embryonic, had a lumbar position up kidney. During development, testes are lowered and out of the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal, they penetrate scholarships (scrotum) This is their final position at birth. The testicular migration anomalies are’origin of abnormal situations : the testicular ectopia.
II- descriptive anatomy :
1- Form, color, consistency :
The testis is an ovoid to oblique axis upwards and before.
Color : bluish white
Consistency : closes due to its envelope
Dimensions : length (major axis) : 3 at 5 cm, the minor axis perpendicular to the long axis represents the height is 2 at 3 cm ; thickness : 2,5 cm. Weight : 15 at 25 gramme.
2- external configuration :
The outer surface of the testis is smooth and shiny, covered by a serous vaginal. Each testicle has two faces : Two medial and lateral edges : posterior superior and anteroinferior Two ends (poles) upper and lower
The testicle is surrounded by a resilient membrane which gives it its bluish color and consistency : l’albuginée.
It is capped on its postero-superior edge by the’epididymis.
C’is a mobile organ, its mobility is facilitated by the serosa which’surrounded : vaginal. This covers all the side face and part of its medial surface.
3- Constitution :
A vertical section along the major axis of the testis shows that the latter is surrounded by a fibrous membrane ; l’albuginée. It sends septa within the testis into lobules by dividing the number of 250 at 300.
Lobules containing seminiferous tubules (séminipares) very tortuous, number of 2 at 4 by lobule.
The tunica has a thickening at the front of the board called postérosupérieur : mediastinum testis or body Highmore. It contains the rete testis.
The sperm ducts
These are the excretion of testicular sperm tract, they extend the seminiferous tubules in the urethra.
1- The ways sperm intra-testicular :
- straight tubes draining the seminiferous tubules
- the rete testis : straight tubes flow into a braided channel network : the testis or network réseau testiculaire.
- efferent cones : connect the rete testis to the epididymis to the number of 8 at 12.
2- The ways spermatic extra-testicular :
a- epididymis :
This is a paired organ, elongated back and forth placed on the posterior upper edge and overlapping the side face testicular. It measures about 5 cm de long ; it is covered with tunica. It describes three portions :
- the head : is the expanded anterior part, it carries the efferent cones.
- the body : cylindrical partially covered by the vaginal.
- tail : is continuous with the ductus deferens.
The epididymis contains the epididymal duct curled along 6 meters. Sometimes there on the front end of the head of the epididymis a pedunculated hydatid (embryonic remnant).
The head and tail are attached to the testicle Tépididyme, while the body is separated from the testis by a extension of the vaginal called cul-de-sac inter-epididymo-testicular.
b- vas deferens :
It follows Tépididyme at the junction epididymo-deferential (acute angle : epididymo-deferential handle) and ends at the junction of the seminal vesicles and ejaculatory duct. Two in number. Its length is about 40 cm, diameter : 2 Consistency mm : very firm
Path : It rides on the medial aspect of the testis, then it is located in the spermatic cord, passes through the inguinal canal and win the pelvic cavity, at this point it has two segments :
– latero- bladder segment
– retro-bladder segment ; this segment is enlarged, present dents, it is called bulb vas deferens,
c- seminal vesicle :
Two in number, located at the dorsal side of the bladder, above the prostate. They are involved in the production of seminal fluid, and also a sperm reservoir between ejaculations.
Seminal vesicle is formed from a duct bent at bumpy surface.
The meeting of each seminal vesicle vas deferens with the corresponding permits formation of ejaculatory duct. Conducted seminal vesicle average measurement 5 at 6 cm de long, 5 mm,
d- ejaculatory duct :
Two in number, from 2 at 3 cm de long, each formed by the meeting of the seminal vesicle and the conduit corresponding deferent. He walks into the prostate, it ends in the prostatic urethra at the seminal colliculus (or true montanum).
It is a skin and connective bag forming a stock exchange where the testes are housed. It is divided in two by the scrotal septum. It is formed by several layers, it differs from the surface to the depth :
- thin and wrinkled skin,
- le muscle dartos,
- the external spermatic fascia,
- the cremaster muscle,
- the inner band spermatique,
- the parietal leaflet of the vaginal membrane testicular,
- the visceral layer covers the testis and extends over part of Tépididyme and on the lower end of the spermatic cord.
The spermatic cord
This is the pedicle that suspends the testis and Tépididyme. It is contained within the fibrous tunic scrotal. It contains
- vas deferens, ahead of him spermatic artery and anterior spermatic venous plexus.
- behind the vas deferens is the deferential artery and spermatic venous plexus posterior. The veins are accompanied by lymphatic vessels.
It has two portions :
- funiculaire : between testicle and epididymis d’a share and l’superficial opening of the inguinal canal.
- inguinal : in the inguinal canal between both superficial and deep holes at this level is nerves, ilioinguinal and genitofemoral.
Blood and nerve supply
1- Testis and sperm ducts :
It is vascularized by three arteries
- spermatic artery (testicular) nait of the aorta in androgenic altitude of L2, Traverse le inguinal canal, is worn in the spermatic cord, it ends in the testis into two terminal branches
- deferential artery arises from the internal iliac artery joins the spermatic cord it ends at the deferential epididymo-loop into two or three branches.
- crémastérique artery arises from the inferior epigastric artery, she joined the spermatic cord it is distributed to the testicle and spermatic cord envelopes.
Veins form the testicular pole, they form two networks :
- a rear back-deferential which joins the inferior epigastric vein.
- a pre-deferential prior, which gives rise to the testicular vein, it joins the inferior vena cava and right renal vein left.
Lymph join lymphonœuds aortic and aorto-caval inter-
- Innervation : the branches of the celiac plexus and branches of the hypogastric plexus.
2- the scrotum :
Les artères sont des branches of the pudendal Femoral externe (branch of the femoral), and branches the internal pudendal Femoral (branch of the internal iliac artery)
The veins empty into the butt of the great saphenous vein and internal pudendal vein. Lymph join the superficial inguinal lymphonœuds.
The nerves are branches of nerves : pudendal, iliohypogastric and genitofemoral.
Rouviere and Delmas A · H. Human Anatomy, Descriptive, Topographical and Functional. Tome II, ed. Masson 1985.
Trouilloud P. Introduction to Anatomy edition ellipses 2010
Course of Dr BOUKABACHE Leila – Faculty of Constantine