Solvent Poisoning

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I- Definition :

  • The solvent is a liquid substance capable of : dissolve(dry cleaning) / extract (petrochemistry) / to suspend (painting) chemicals without altering their chemical constitutions.
  • Their industrial use is wide :

– Workers who make repeated use without proper protection can have health problems
– O & rsquo; they are stored in enclosed areas without ventilation can be a source of & rsquo; & rsquo explosion and blaze
– They can cause pollution & rsquo; environment (especially VOC), and contaminate water sources

II- Physical and chemical properties :

1- Polarity :

a- polar solvents : H20, alcohol, acids, bases, ketones, glycol ethers or amines

b- Lipophilic and hydrophobic polar solvents : aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic and halogenated

2- steam pressure :

highly volatile : Tv > 50 hPa Volatil : 10 < Tv > 50 Shortly volatile hPa : Tv < 10 hPa

NB : un (volatile organic compound) features a TV > 0,1 hPa

III- use :

Are used as :

  • degreasers : cleaning of fabrics and metal parts.
  • Dry cleaning
  • Extraction of active ingredients in pharmacology
  • In manufacturing : gangs, adhesives, Paintings
  • Adjuvants and diluents : paints and varnishes.
  • strippers : Elimination of paints and fats.
  • purifying : in pharmaceutical and perfumery.
  • Chemical intermediate for the manufacture of & rsquo; insecticides (surtt OP)
  • anesthetics : chlorofome

IV- components :

1- organic solvents :

  • saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons : hexane, cyclohexane
  • aromatic hydrocarbons : Benzene, xylene, toluene.
  • halogenated hydrocarbons : chlorine, brome, fluor
  • alcohols : Ethanol and Methanol.
  • ketones : Acetone.
  • Ethers.
  • Ethers de glycol
  • Esters

2- No organic :

  • nitrates
  • sulfur derivatives
  • nitrogen derivatives
  • aqueous products

V- Toxicity :

1- Routes & rsquo; intoxication :

  • Respiratory : inhalation of volatile particles in suspension in & rsquo; air.
  • cutaneous : Favored by the lipid solubility of these substances.
  • Digestive : often accidental.

2- Diffusion :

  • The solvents are fixed to the tissues (high fat) and then metabolized in the liver level.

3- Elimination :

– Expired air.
– urine.
– therein.

NB : mercury n & rsquo; is not a solvent, l & rsquo; Water is a solvent.

WE- Symptomatology :

  • Some symptoms are common to many solvent with specificities for each toxic.

1- acute intoxication :

– The route of & rsquo; s biggest intoxication in the workplace is the pulmonary route.
– Favored by affinities of these toxic for the rich in fat bodies (liposolubilité).

  • massive airway irritation (mouth, nose, VRS and VRI) : Some solvents release caustic as phosgene (carbonyl chloride) and & rsquo; HCl causing a lesion OAP and acute respiratory failure.
  • Altered CNS : manifestation ébrio-narcotique (headaches, nausea, intoxication, dizziness). If & rsquo; mass poisoning, l & rsquo; evolution can be towards a deep coma.
  • achievement heart : halogenated solvents are responsible for cardiac arrhythmias (71 with the number of incorporated chlorine).
  • Reaching mucocutaneous : irritation, burn in case of & rsquo; massive exposure, conjunctivitis (intérêtd & rsquo; immediate washing with & rsquo; running water).
  • Cytolyse, acute hepatitis
  • anuric kidney failure

2- chronic intoxication :

  • chronic dermatoses : appearance lichenifie, crevasse especially touching hands
  • Contact dermatitis : preferably serving at the exposed parts : mains, face very itchy erythematous and keratotic.
  • neurological impairment : grouped under the & rsquo; name "Solvent psycho-syndrome 'is made of :

– Sleep disorder.
– Memory impairment.
– Irritability.

These symptoms may be revised at the beginning of & rsquo; intoxication

  • optic neuritis : carbon disulfide
  • Hemato-toxicity : Myelosuppression (Benzene is forbidden), méthomoglobinisant (nitrates)
  • Hepato renal impairment : IRC and IH cirrhosis.
  • Reproductive effects : precaution in pregnant women (ABRT).
  • carcinogenicity : hepatoma, hepatocellular carcinoma

NB : CMR (carcinogenic, mutagenic, reprotoxique)

VII- technical prevention :

  • Ensure proper labeling : good packaging and adequate storage.
  • To replace very unsafe products as "Benzene".
  • Work in isolation.
  • Capturing the source vapors in emissions, volatile or suspended particles.
  • Ensure good ventilation of work.
  • Regularly check the concentrations of toxicants in & rsquo; air CMA TLV.
  • Equipping workers of personal protective equipment (glasses, gloves, clothing, shoe…)
  • Separate street clothes of those work.
  • daily showers.

VIII- medical prevention :

  • Medical examination has fattening : kidney away, hepatic, respiratory, cardiac, dermatological, narco- dependent.
  • periodic inspection : neurological and skin examination.
  • spontaneous visit : report symptoms to their exhibitions

Dr Boumendjel's course – Faculty of Constantine